Quantum Dot technology is relatively new and has a wide scope in the future. The use of the technology in different industrial sectors such as solar cells, diode lasers, transistors, LED’s, and others. Medical imaging is another avenue that could possibly see extensive use of quantum dots. The wide use of quantum technology has made it a significant and a crucial discovery. The demand for quantum technology has increased and it is proving to be a profitable investment channel for the investors. Allied Market Research published a reportthat talks about the market share, size, and growth of the technology. The report suggests that the global quantum dots market will touch a staggering figure of $5041 million by 2020. Several companies such as Sony Corp, LG Display, and others are adopting the technology to manufacture innovative products such as displays. The quantum dot market continues to grow in the western regions such as North America and Europe owing to technological advancements in the region.
Quantum computing made possible by graphene quantum dots
Quantum dots made from semiconductors such as silicon could possibly change the face of the display market in the near future. Researchers and scientists are exploring new possibilities of the technology at a fast pace. The findings and discoveries made by the experts are widening the scope of quantum technology.
The striking property of quantum dots which enable the electrons to transform into low key quantum states has opened the doors to quantum computing. Experts believe if the focus is shifted from the use of semiconductors variants to pure conductors such as graphene, it will make quantum computing easier. Researchers at Technische Universität Wien along with researchers at University of Manchester and Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen University) have found a way to make quantum dots from graphene. The graphene quantum dots hold a promising future for quantum computing and the quantum dot market.
According to the researchers quantum dots from graphene have 4 quantum states at a specified energy level whereas semiconductor dots have only 2 states. “In conventional semiconductors, there is only the spin of the electrons,” explained Florian Libisch, the assistant professor at TU Wein who led the research, in an e-mail interview with IEEE Spectrum. Florian Libisch, assistant professor at TU Wein quoted, “With graphene, there is a second conserved quantity called ‘pseudospin.’ Both of these symmetries together yield 2 x 2 = 4 quantum states.” The two extra quantum states is a blessing to quantum computing according to the experts working on the technology. It depends on well-managed interactions between qubits also known as quantum bits.
The loss of the quantum properties due to environment interaction is an obstacle to the technology and experts are investing resources to find a feasible solution. Four electron states with similar energy enable switching between the quantum states to store information. Another factor that needs to be taken into account is, producing quantum dots with graphene without losing or affecting any one of the 4 states. Along with the four states of quantum, graphene quantum dots also offer scalability. There are various other advantages of using quantum dots with graphene such as mechanical flexibility and thinness that could potentially allow high storage density. Quantum dots made of graphene is identified as a crucial discovery in the field of quantum dot technology.
Light manipulated by quantum dots
Physicists at the Leiden Institute of Physics have manipulated light with artificial atoms that are also called quantum dots. This was only accomplished with real atoms before this. This step is important as far as light based quantum technology is concerned. When laser is pointed at the screen during presentation, a huge number of light particles race through the air at billion kilometers per hour. The flow of these particles is not continuous and comes in packages that contain varying number of particles. It is important for scientists to have control over the number of photons per package in light-based quantum technology.
Photons can be manipulated with real atoms as well. But the small size of these atoms makes it hard to work with them. The same principle applies to large artificial atoms that are known as quantum dots, which are easier to work with. Entangling as many photons as possible using quantum dots is the goal of the researchers.
Quantum dots could be an essential tool for Nano engineering
Quantum dots have gained popularity due to their optical features. The use of quantum dots technology extends to cutting-edge display as well as medical imaging. The properties of quantum dots need to be modified according to the requirement. Copper ions tend to reduce or destroy the capability of quantum dots to emit light. Scientists at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IPC PAS) in Warsaw said that they have made zinc oxide quantum dots using an original method that was developed by them. This was achieved after modifying by the click reaction with the presence of copper ions. The newly developed zinc oxide quantum dots have the ability to emit light. This invention or discovery could potentially help the quantum dots market to expand further.
Prof. Janusz Lewinski (IPC PAS, FC WUT) said, “We were the first to demonstrate that it is possible to produce quantum dots from organometallic precursors in a way they do not lose their valuable optical properties after being subjected to copper-catalyzed click reactions." The optical properties of each dot depends on the size and type of material it is derived from. This limits the applications of quantum dots for specific applications only. The physio-chemical properties of quantum dots have to be modified to meet the requirement. Prof Lewinski’s and his team have devoted a lot of time to formulate alternative methods for preparation of good quality ZnO quantum dots. Quantum dots have made their way into various industrial processes and as nano makers in biology and medicine in which they are combined with active molecules.
The various uses of quantum dots have encouraged the investors worldwide to explore the profitable investment avenues that have opened up recently in the quantum dots market. The North American region dominates the market in the current scenario as the region is blessed with advanced technology and facilities. New discoveries made by researchers and scientists explore the wide scope of the quantum dot technology.
Author's Bio- Akhilesh Prabhugaonkar holds a bachelors degree in Electronics Engineering from the reputed Vishwakarma Institute of Technology. He has a special interest in the fields of forensics, world history, international relations and foreign policy, sports, agriculture, astronomy, security, and oceanography. An ardent bibliophile and melophile, Akhilesh loves to write on topics of his interest and various other societal issues. This love for writing made him enter the professional world of content writing and pursue his career in this direction.